It has been worked out that around 80% of the world’s population believe in one religion or another (and there are lots of them), but about 70% of those are members to the huge four. The four largest religions are: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism. Judaism is the precursor of both Islam and Christianity.
The Hebrew Bible recounts the history of the world and the tale of the journey of the people from creation, all through the flood to the arrival in the Promised Land, or from Mesopotamia to Canaan, led by Abraham.
The offspring of Abraham and his people were enslaved by the Egyptians and did not manage to escape until Moses led them out of captivity. During this journey, Moses was given the Ten Commandments from God and they went on to be the bedrock of Jewish law and custom although there is no doubt that the Jewish mode of life has evolved from this period in the Tenth Century before Christ.
The sacred writings of the Hebrew Bible or Masorah are divided into twenty-four books. But, the same writings are divided up into thirty-nine books in the Chirtian Bible’s Ancient Testament. The Torah or The Law was being composed at this time but it was altered and updated between the Tenth and Fifth Centuries before Christ.
In addition to the Hebrew scriptures, there is a rich tradition of ancient oral commentary known as the Talmud, which is a huge compilation of the Oral Law. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews.
Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion known to the West. Jews believed in one God whilst all of the known world believed in pantheism or many gods like the Ancient Greeks. The name of God in the Jewish language is Yahweh and they believe that Yahweh made a covenant with His people to take care of them for ever as long as they remained devoted solely to him.
In the Jewish faith, sin is the unashamed disrespect of God’s will and that is punishable by God in a similar fashion to the Buddhist belief in karma.. The objective of following God’s Law is being welcomed into His Kingdom.
Jews worship in synagogues in congregations led by Rabbis who are considered Teachers or Masters (as in the ancient style of calling teachers, ‘masters’) rather than as monks or vicars. The Jewish Sabbath is not the Sunday as in Christianity, but is observed from sunset Friday until sunset Saturday night.
The most significant holidays or holy days in the Jewish calendar are: Rosh Hashanah (New Year); Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement); Hanukah (Festival of Lights) and Pesach (Passover). The Jewish nation does not celebrate Christmas because they believe that the Son of God is still yet to be born. They see Jesus as a prophet in the same manner as the Muslims do.
There are three predominant branches of modern Judaism which are: Orthodox Judaism; Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism. Some of these branches of Judaism are more prevalent in some countries than others.
The doctrines of Islam were passed down to humankind through Mohammed who is widely thought of as the last, so far, in the line of Middle Eastern prophets. The first was Abraham of Judaism renown, then there was Jesus for Christianity and then came Mohammed. Mohammed was born in around 570 AD in Mecca, western Saudi Arabia and died 62 years later in 632 in Medina.
The Koran, or the ‘Recitation’ in English, consists of 144 chapters and was revealed to Mohammed by God. These doctrines were written down by his secretaries during the course of 23 years.
Like its predecessor religions, Islam is a monotheistic religion and its narrative includes tales or references to Abraham, Moses (and the Ten Commandments) and Jesus, but does not accept Christianity’s declaration of his divinity.
Another major difference from the Middle Eastern religions before it, is that Jews trace their lineage through Abraham’s son Isaac, whereas Muslims trace their history through Abraham’s son Ishmael by another wife.
The root of the word Islam – ‘s-l-m’ – means ‘peace’ and ‘submission’ (to God). A Muslim’s association with God is determined by the ‘Five Pillars of Islam’. These five pillars are: Shahadah (profession of faith); public and collective prayer five times every day; charity to the poor; fasting during the holy month of Ramadan and a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest of places to Muslims, at least once in their lifetime.
Islam has stringent dietary laws, notably with regard to eating pork, and prohibitions against promiscuity, stealing, gambling and lying. Muslims worship in Mosques and the services are led by Imams. The most critical time to pray is at midday on a Friday, which is the Muslim Sabbath.
The vast majority of Muslims are Sunnites, who are the traditionalists, and the rest are Shi’ites or ‘partisans’. This could roughly be compared with the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. The variances between the two sects in the both religions have caused untold misery over the centuries and there is no sign of it stopping any time soon.
There is significantly more known of Mohammed than about Jesus. Mohammed was brought up by his uncle and at the age of 25 he was a trader. At the age of 40, in 610, an angel instructed him to proclaim the word of God. He was not welcomed in Mecca but the authorities invited him to quell the city of Medina in 622, which he accomplished.
His condition for accepting this task was that the people accept the word of God. This they did – this go is called the Hegim and it is the date from which Muslims record contemporary history – like the Western world uses the birth of Jesus.
By 632 Mohammed was dead, but by then the vast majority of Arabs were Muslims. For one reason or another, Islam spread east and west from Saudi Arabia taken usually by Arab traders nearly certainly. Islam never really got a foothold in Europe (except Spain) but it did go East honestly extensively.
Where did the concept of astrology originate. Did it evolve in one component of the world and then turn into adopted by other civilizations.Whenever you study the ancient civilizations inside the Middle East, Central America and in Asia, there are remarkable similarities in how they adapted their lives to be in harmony with the rhythms of earth and the cosmos. Take into account that you will find pyramids in Mayan and Aztec cultures, as well as Egyptian ones. And that many pyramids are constructed around and point to key events within the solar system, for instance equinoxes and solstices.
Equally, astrology is thought to have developed independently in Babylon and Central America. The astrology systems in India and China most likely were derived from those in Babylon.It’s curious that numerous fundamentalist religions reject the principles of astrology, due to the fact it was, in reality, an integral component of the religions of Babylon. It was component of the calling of priests in Babylon to predict the future and component of their methodology for performing so was to interpret events within the sky. Nothing was considered pure chance and any natural occurrence, regardless of how mundane or mysterious, might be an omen of either excellent fortune or terrible.
The component of Mesopotamia that’s now Iraq once comprised Babylonia within the South and Assyria in the North. Prior to Alexander the Excellent conquered the area in 330 BC, the Assyrians were a military and administrative power, and Babylon was the center of culture. The underlying belief system in both cultures was that there was a spiritual force behind every act of nature. Heaven and Earth were complementary systems, with neither 1 having dominion over the other. But by the 4th century BCE, this belief system was influenced by the Greek view that the heavens, and its resident gods, determined events on earth.According to Richard Tarnas, who also wrote of The Passion of the Western Mind, history is on the verge of a major shift, comparable to the 1 wrought by Copernicus and Galileo, but a seemingly antiscientific 1: an astrological turn that may only be understood thorough chronicling planetary alignments as they correlate to the rise of the modern mind over the last 500 years.
Being familiar with planetary alignments, for Tarnas, is essential to the world’s future and requires a genuine dialogue with the cosmos, by opening ourselves more fully to the other, to ancient and indigenous epistemologies, even to other forms of life, other modes of the universe’s self-disclosure.The book is filled with philosophical, religious, literary and scientific thinking ranging from Luther and Kepler by means of Hemingway and even Hitchcock and Dylan. Reading it will need a strong background inside the history of modern thought, an advanced knowledge of astrology, a willingness to withhold skepticism about the role of planetary alignments of the past in understanding life these days and also the avoidance of imminent world catastrophe. Tarnas’s call to redefine what we look at as legitimate knowledge will resonate in some sectors, but it will be a tough sell with the extra scientifically hardheaded.
In terms of planetary cycles, our present condition in history is most similar to the period five hundred years ago-that era of extraordinary turbulence and creativity, the High Renaissance. Not since Copernicus conceived the heliocentric theory has the human community faced such a profound realignment of the way we feel.Perhaps it’s time for us to go back to the philosophy that man is part of the universe, not placed here to conquer it. Just as we’re learning some older medical procedures, such as the use of leeches, to have value these days, perhaps we really should open our minds to the distinct possibility that astrological forces may be a powerful influence on our lives.
Have you ever wondered exactly where cigars were first produced? It truly is widely believed that cigars were first produced in Spain. But just before cigars became all the rage in Europe, tobacco was needed to make them. Tobacco is indigenous towards the Americas, exactly where native peoples have produced it for hundreds of years. It really is believed that the Maya of Yucatan peninsula in Mexico and parts of Central America cultivated tobacco, and even smoked it! Tobacco use spread to other tribes, both north and south. It can be believed that its very first use inside the United States was nearly certainly among the tribe along the Mississippi. It wasn’t till Christopher Columbus sailed his well loved voyage towards the Americas in 1492 that the rest of the world came to know tobacco.It is mentioned that Columbus was not impressed by tobacco or its use among native peoples, but a lot of sailors grew found of the weird plant. Soon it promptly caught on in Spain and Portugal. From there, it spread to France, exactly where the French ambassador Jean Nicot lent his name towards the scientific name for tobacco .
The origins of the word tobacco itself are still suspect, although many reckon it’s merely a corruption of the word Tobago, which will be the name of a Caribbean island. Still others believe it comes from the word Tabasco, a region (and now state) in Mexico.The very first tobacco plantation in the United States was established in Virginia in 1612. More tobacco plantations followed in Maryland soon after. Even though tobacco became a well-liked crop, it was only smoked in pipes. The cigar was not introduced towards the United States until the late 18th century. Israel Putnam, an army common who had served within the Revolutionary War, is credited with introducing the cigar towards the United States. He had traveled to Cuba right after the Revolutionary War and returned with a box of Cuban cigars. Their popularity easily spread, and soon enough cigar factories were established in the region of Harford, Connecticut, where General Putnam resided.
In Europe, cigar production and consumption did not achieve widespread popularity till after the Peninsula War within the early 19th century. British and French veterans returned to their homelands right after years of serving in Spain with their tobacco pipes in tow. Amongst the wealthy and fashionable, the favored method of taking tobacco was the cigar. Cigar smoking remains a habit related using the rich and discriminating of upper society.Is an ashtray just an ashtray? Unlike standard cigarettes, cigars need their own unique space to support their girth and ashes. Numerous cigar aficionados swear by the pleasures of finding the proper spot to hold their cigars and ashes.
So what are the characteristics of a fantastic ashtray? Initial naturally, ensure the ashtray you buy is large adequate to hold your cigars. Cigars are available in varying sizes, so you’ll want an ashtray that may accommodate the single of the option. Subsequent, take into consideration your individual style of smoking. Do you generate a whole lot of ash? Do you let your cigar rest for extended periods of time? These are all critical considerations when deciding on your ashtray.
Appear for ashtrays produced of metal, heavy glass, or ceramics. Ideally, you might want the ashtray to be huge sufficient to hold the ashes for two cigars. Where can you locate the best ashtrays for the cigars? A lot of cigar aficionados swear by antique ashtrays. Search out flea markets and antique stores for fantastic deals. Tobacco shops, mail order catalogs, and World wide web shops are also brilliant places to look.
The exact origin of Berkhamsted Castle is unclear. It was probably built by Robert, Count of Mortain and Earl of Cornwall, who was the half-brother of King William I. Robert became wealthy from the Norman Conquest in 1066 and grew even more rich over the following years.
But, his son made a huge slip-up by backing Robert of Normandy against King Henry I. Henry impounded the castle and its grounds and place it up for rent. Various wealthy families rented it from time to time, one of whom was Thomas Becket.
Berkhamsted Castle is of the classic style for its age in that it is a motte and bailey castle. The motte is a tall conical mound of earth on which would stand the last line of defence, the keep. Two ditches surround the bailey with a rampart in between. The ditches may or may not have been full of water.
The motte and bailey and its keep were the ancient equivalent of a modern strong or safe room. If the outer concentric walls of the castle were breached, the family occupying the castle and their most trusted soldiers would flee into the keep and lift up the drawbridge. Any would-be attackers now had to approach across open ground, in effect a killing field.
Then the invaders would have to cross a ditch or a moat under heavy fire, climb over a rampart and swim another moat. If they got that far they would face a sheer keep wall with no windows doors or toe-holds while a withering shower of rocks and arrows poured down upon them from a fantastic height.
The keep at Berkhamsted Castle has been taken away quite some time ago. It has to be remembered that castles were symbols of foreign oppression and were fiercely despised by the indigenous locals. The first castles or forts really were Roman; then came, Saxon forts and castles and finally Norman castles – all owned by marauding foreigners.
So when a castle was ruined or terribly hurt, it was not unusual for the locals to plunder the ruins in order to build a new cottage for their family or a new cowshed for their livestock. It was simpler to steal the rocks from the dilapidated castle than quarry them themselves. So, the original rocks that were Berkhamsted Castle are probably to be learned under centuries of plaster in the near-by local farmhouses.
Having said that, there are still sections of the original flint wall from the era of Thomas Becket’s occupancy of the castle. The bits of stone were nearly certainly too small to be worth pinching.
The remnants of three semi-circular towers flank this wall which ran from the motte to the bailey. They too lie in ruins although the foundations show what they were. There are also the ruins of a barbican at the north end of the bailey.
There are hundreds, if not thousands of castles in the United Kingdom. Most of them lie in ruins but some are very well conserved and some are even still occupied, like Windsor Castle for instance.
Originally, Welsh terriers were bred for hunting rabbits, foxes and badgers, but public opinion and the decline in the lust for blood generally have gone in opposition to blood sports and so this native breed of Wales has become a show dog and a pet. Breeders try to outdo each other by breeding the Welsh terrier to have a thicker wiry coat and deeper colouration. The Welsh terrier is also a well loved pet because it is one of the most simple-going terriers.
The Welsh terrier is a fun loving dog. It just likes to run, chase and play, which makes it a smashing companion and a perfect pet. Welsh terriers require lots of exercise, so be prepared for plenty of walking, if you make your mind up to get one.
It is a excellent thought to ‘socialize’ your dog as soon as possible. This means that you should introduce your Welsh terrier puppy to children and other dogs at an early age. The more you encourage your dog to play with other dogs as a puppy, the less distress you will have with your dog fighting or barking at other dogs and cats. It’s the same tale with children. Children can play very roughly, and a dog could be forgiven for biting back, but it can be avoided by introducing your Welsh terrier puppy to children while it is still young. The child might learn respect, but the dog will learn forbearance.
The Welsh terrier is easily trained, if you like your dog to perform tricks. it is an intelligent breed and, being former hunters, they are excellent at learning commands and tricks. Train your Welsh terrier with kindheartedness and reiteration. They like to retrieve sticks and play with a ball. Many people train their Welsh terriers to catch a flying Frisbee too.
A Welsh terrier will groom himself quite scrupulously, but you can help out by brushing him once a week in order to eradicate the dead and loose hair. This will also help cut down the amount of hairs dropping inside your house, although terriers in general, and wire-haired dogs in particular do not lose as much hair as soft coated dogs. You could also lend a hand by wiping him over with a moist cloth from time to time in order to pick up any dust on his coat.
A Welsh terrier is very active and very curious, so it is prudent to keep your dog in a yard that has been fenced off. But, the fence needs to be realistically high, because the Welsh terrier has an exceptional ability to jump due to its long legs.
The Welsh terrier is Britain’s oldest breed of dog, but it is now under pressure. The British kennel club registers only 300 Welsh terrier puppies a year, whereas it registers tens of thousands of puppies of other, more well loved, breeds. The Welsh terrier is a strong-willed animal, so it does need a strong-willed and patient owner.
But. if you want a Welsh terrier and you persevere with it, you will never look back. They have a lot to give and, as with so many things in life, you only get out what you are willing to place in.
In the 1700′s, dishes, saws, knives, flints, a scraper, a prehistoric horn celt with weird markings, a spokeshave and some arrowheads from the Neolithic Period were found. These are now safely housed in the museum in Cardiff, but at the time no one thought to organize an excavation and later a housing estate was built on the site.
An ancient Roman kitchen replete with cooking utensils and food remains was also abandoned without investigation. In 1533, Leland, the King’s Antiquary, was ordered to visit ‘all places where records are held’. It took him nine years and he wrote of Barry Island:
“It is about a mile in circumference and has excellent corn, grass and some wood, and there is no dwelling on the Island, but in the midst of it is a honest small Chapel of St. Baruch which is visited by many pilgrims. It took the name Barri from this holy man who was buried there and whose remains are yet on the Island”. (The Welsh name for Barry is Y Barri).
Viking raiders attacked the south Wales coastline, often taking hostages from monasteries in the 10th. Century, but they did not try to settle in the area. The island was long known as the Saints Retreat or the Island of Saints. Later, in the early 16th. Century, the island was used by smugglers and pirates and was nicknamed the Smugglers Fortress. This coincided with the increase in shipping to and from Bristol, Britain’s second largest port at the time.
Barry Island soon became the centre of piracy and smuggling in the Bristol Channel. In 1784, the island became known as the “Fortress of Knight”. Knight was the most prolific pirate and smuggler in the channel and people were to terrified to speak out in court against him., although he was also considered a bit of a local hero. His armed ship was called ‘John O’ Combe’. He was eventually forced out to Lundy, which he also fortified. He and his successor, Arthur, returned to Barry so frequently that H.M. Customs questioned the government to station a cutter in Penarth and 60 troops to Barry.
The small seaside village of Rhoose, five miles from Barry, was so well-known for its wreckers that George II sent troops to break up them up. They landed at Aberthaw, just up the coast a bit further, “the Rhoose men’s favourite landing zone, from where they could easily transport the contraband along Port Road to Cardiff, the main market for such things”. While digging out for the docks at Barry in the late nineteenth century, several large caves were filled in. They had probably been used by the pirates who were went on in about 1850.
Most people look forward to going away on holiday and a lot of people like to make complex plans and bookings. After all you frequently have to make allowances for flights and hotels. But, there can also be car, tour and bicycle bookings as well, depending on the category of holiday you want.
As an alternative to a hotel, you might want to reckon about hiring a private cottage. Cottage rentals are a excellent option to a hotel or guest house. In general, cottage holidays are self-catering, so you would have to be ready to place in a small more work than if you went on an all-inclusive hotel stay. A small cottage on the coast in an isolated setting would suit many people, but a vacation cottage on the coast might be better for others.
If you pick the right location, you can have whatever type of cottage you want. Go to the coast if you like sailing or snorkeling. A seaside resort setting would offer more night life probably. If you fancy a quieter fishing holiday with canoing or boating, a silent lakeside hideaway would be more appropriate. Then there are mountain retreats and several other degrees of isolation and nightlife too.
If you want to go to see museums and other touristic sights, you should select a site near an appropriate city. It just requires a small forward preparation and thought.
We live in Wales and there are thousands of rental cottages of all types in all manner of locations. If you have a huge family, you could hire several cottages close to each there and live in a kind of ancient fashioned village. There are also modern camps like ‘Center Parcs’ which have hundreds of very modern cottages in small groups of four or five so that families or friends can stay in a community together.
These modern cottages are very plush, with Jacuzzis, swirl baths, large flat screen televisions and all manner of entertainment equipment and satellite TV. The cottages are set in acres of woodland and wildlife is everywhere. There are deer, badgers, foxes, squirrels and dozens of types of birds including kingfishers, geese, ducks and swans.
The swimming pools are completely heated and go inside and outside into the woods, so that even in the middle of winter you remain warm. There is also archery, boating and hiking with many courses of differing hardship to follow. It is fantastic to walk in the woods knowing that you cannot get lost with animals around every corner.
The wildlife is used to human company, so much or it is not worried and they come right up to you if you stop for a picnic. These holidays are not so cheap as going to a self-catering private vacation, but they are safe, particularly for young families.
You can come across cottage rentals through a travel agent, but you can also find them by searching in your local newspaper. These are some of the best finds because the cottages might be only a few hours drive away, but that is far enough to make a huge change. You do not really need to get on a plane to have a fantastic holiday with a difference.
Owen Jones, the author of this article, writes on many subjects, but is currently involved with the rental of Welsh coastal cottages. If you are interested in a cottage or Wales in general, please go to our website at Welsh Products Online
Archery fishing is also known as bow fishing and it is as ancient as the bow and arrow themselves. We in the West are inclined to reckon that only poorer tribesmen in Third World countries go bow fishing, but that is not quite right.
These days the hunting of mammals is strictly regulated and so some people who like to hunt with a bow will turn to bow fishing if the animals that they like to hunt, say deer, are out of season. Some other people, who would not kill a deer or bear are very pleased to hunt fish in this way.
Bow fishing is a skillful sport, but the equipment need not necessarily be hi-tech. The fact is that you can use whatever bow you have or you can just make one. It does not have to be strong, because the quarry is seldom more than ten feet away. You categorically do not need a 100 lbf longbow to kill a trout.
Having said that, any bow used for fishing will need to be adapted slightly – you will need to attach a reel to it, but it does not have to be anything fancy. There are three principal types of reel for use in bow fishing: hand-wrap, spincast and retriever and the line is usually braided nylon of approximately eighty pounds although you might require six hundred pound breaking strain line for alligators or sharks.
It is worth checking out the regulations with regard to bow fishing in your country or state, because sometimes bow fishermen have to be licensed and sometimes getting that license involves having attended a safety course.
Some regions will even have regulations concerning the kind of gear you can use in bow fishing and of course, some fish have seasonal limitations.
Bow fishing is a mixture of fishing and hunting, so you could have to learn some new skills like tying knots for example. You will need to be able to tie the line to the reel and the arrow and those knots will need to be able to place up with the tremendous acceleration that an arrow leaving a bow goes through without failing.
The bow may not differ much from a normal bow, but the arrows certainly do. Arrows for bow fishing are normally a lot more substantial that air-flight arrows. They also have barbed points to prevent the fish escaping or just slipping off when you reel it in. The arrows do not have fletching either because flights are apt to avert the right course of the arrow in water – the opposite of in the air.
There are three main techniques used in bow fishing: 1] you can place down ground bait and lie in wait. – an over hanging tree or high boulder is excellent for this; 2] you can float down stream in a boat while sitting or standing in the bow; 3] you can walk into the river like a salmon fisherman.
Compensating for the refraction of the water is the most hard ability to learn and that means knowing the water well as well.
Owen Jones, the author of this article writes on several topics, but is presently involved with archery recurve bows. If you want to know more or for special deals, please go to our website at Kids Archery Set.
We are all being advised to get out more frequently, so many people are searching for a reason for doing it. You could undertake a spectator sport like football, but that is not really going to do your body much excellent, you ought to be looking for a participation sport.
If you are younger, then play soccer by all means, but if you are getting on a bit, you will most likely be looking for a sport that is not quite so strenuous. Men like to aim and shoot things even if not kill them. Golf is an option, but I want to recommend that you give archery a try.
Archery has the advantage over shooting a gun because it requires some physical fitness. It is not just a question of pulling, sorry, squeezing a trigger. If you take up archery, you will most likely want to buy some more upper-body strength, especially if the most strenuous work you have done for the last twenty years is pick up a pen.
Archery is an rounded sport in many ways, depending on how much you get into it. Most beginners will start out by going to an archery club and joining in for the day. People will lend them a bow and teach them the safety aspects and the proper way to hold a bow and shoot an arrow. This should give you a excellent thought of which kind of bow you would like.
After a week or two, you might buy your own bow and you might go from indoor target archery to outdoor target archery or even field archery, which is virtual hunting. From there, you will nearly certainly meet people who take archery a stage further. You will meet competition archers, bow hunters and people who assemble their own equipment.
You might find one of these aspects of archery enthralling. You may take up bow hunting or even bow fishing. This will lead you off at a tangent, because you will have to learn about the animals that you hunt. You will have to learn where they live and what their lifestyles are. This means research.
Or you can take up the archery equivalent of clay pigeon shooting, which is called field archery. In field archery, the archers walk around a course and replica animals or standard targets will become visible at diverse distances. This is enjoyable.
You will also meet individuals who like to make their own arrows or even their own bows. This is another fascinating aspect of archery. You can buy the various components that go to make up an arrow and you can buy a kit to make a bow or you can start from scratch with an axe, a knife and a lathe. Again you will have to do a lot of research, in order to get your archery equipment just right.
This will take you down yet another tangent to archery, but it will improve your understanding of archery, augment your pleasure in the sport and, as they say, add another string to your bow.
Owen Jones, the writer of this piece writes on various subjects, but is presently concerned with longbows for sale. If you want to know more or for special deals, please go to our website at Kids Archery Set.